Cold War Simulation period 6 (Day 6 and 7) 1956

Khrushchev gave a ‘secret’ speech criticizing the horrors of the Stalin regime.  Later he visited London.  Nasser of Egypt secured some funding for his Aswan High Dam project from the US.  However, when that funding became a political problem for the US, he attempted to nationalize the Suez Canal.  This led to a secret agreement by the French, British and Israelis to seize the canal by force.  While it was a success militarily, political pressure from the two Superpowers led to their withdraw, although Nasser abandoned his control over the canal.  Nasser also signed an arms deal with the Soviets.  The Soviets crushed a rebellion in Budapest.  French General Monique Clev’eland’ led a successful series of military raids against the Algerian rebels.  There was a major nuclear accident at Windscale nuclear facility in Great Britain.  The Americans supported South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem suggestion to suspend elections in Vietnam.  This led to a revolt by the National Liberation front in South Vietnam. The US attempted to pass a UN Security Council Resolution to bring a UN force into Vietnam, but it was vetoed by the Soviets.  The space race heated up when the Soviets launched ‘Sputnik’ the first man-made satellite.  The Americans responded by creating NASA.  American-Canadian relations were strained when Canadian E.H. Norman, who had been under pressure and surveillance by the US for suspicious communist activity, commits suicide by jumping from the roof of the Swedish Embassy.  He was later cleared by the US Subcommittee on Internal Security. 

Cold War Simulation Period 5 (Days 7 and 8) 1956

Khrushchev gave a ‘secret’ speech criticizing the horrors of the Stalin regime.  The Soviets proposed that Khrushchev visit London, but hardliners in the UK—under pressure from the US—did not allow the visit to take place.  Nasser of Egypt secured some funding for his Aswan High Dam project from the US.  However, when that funding became a political problem for the US, he attempted to nationalize the Suez Canal.  This led to a secret agreement by the French, British and Israelis to seize the canal by force.  While it was a success militarily, political pressure from the two Superpowers led to their withdraw, although Nasser abandoned his control over the canal.  Nasser also signed an arms deal with the Soviets.  The Soviets crushed a rebellion in Budapestm, while the British easily ende the so-called Mau Mau Crisis in Kenya.  London suffered from the ‘Great Smog’ while there was also a major nuclear accident at the Windscale nuclear facility in Great Britain.   France and China became the 4th and 5th countries with atomic power.  The Americans supported South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem suggestion to suspend elections in Vietnam.  This led to a revolt by the National Liberation front in South Vietnam. The space race heated up when the Soviets launched ‘Sputnik’ the first man-made satellite.  The Americans responded by creating NASA. American-Canadian relations were strained when Canadian E.H. Norman, who had been under pressure and surveillance by the US for suspicious communist activity, commits suicide by jumping from the roof of the Swedish Embassy.  He was later cleared by the US Subcommittee on Internal Security.

Cold War Simulation Period 6 (Day 5) 1954-55; 1956-57

The French suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Dienbienphu.  The French refused to use tactical nuclear weapons to stabilize the situation in Indochina so their ability to continue the war effectively ended.  During the ensuing Geneva Peace Convention, Laos and Cambodia were created as Vietnam was split into North (communist) and South Vietnam (non-communist) along the 17th parallel, with elections to be held in 1956.  Soviet Premiere Nikita Khrushchev visited and apologized to Soviet  leader Tito for Stalin’s actions toward Yugoslavia.  The French colony of Algeria was engulfed in a civil war when a Muslim nationalist group the F.L.N. began attacking French forces therein.      British mountaineer Sydney Wignall and his crew were released from a Chinese prison and made their way back to India over the Himalayas.  Economically, the American stock market suffered a significant crash, while there was a bumper crop of grain in the USSR.  While the British were able to suppress the Chinese-backed rebels in Malaysia with help from the Australian air force, and the Mau Mau Crisis was finished, the British began to face another rebellion in Cyprus.  Up to 12,000 Londoners die in the ‘Great Smog’.

Video summary of the Battle of Dienbienphu

The Great Smog’

 

Cold War Simulation Period 5 (Day 5) 1954-55

The French suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Dienbienphu.  The French gave a half-hearted request to the Americans for the use of tactical nuclear weapons, but they refused so their ability to continue the war effectively ended.  During the ensuing Geneva Peace Convention, Laos and Cambodia were created as Vietnam was split into North (communist) and South Vietnam (non-communist) along the 17th parallel, with elections to be held in 1956.  Soviet Premiere Nikita Khrushchev visit and apologized to Tito.  The French colony of Algeria was engulfed in a civil war when a Muslim nationalist group the F.L.N. began attacking French forces therein.      British mountaineer Sydney Wignall and his crew were released from a Chinese prison and made their way back to India over the Himalayas, but the British government pubically announced that two diplomats—Burgess and MacClean had gone missing.  Meanwhile, in the Pacific an American hydrogen bomb test went wrong resulting in a Japanese fishing trawler.  There was a minor skirmish between Chinese forces and Taiwanese forces in the Straits of Taiwan.  The Chinese began a military occupation of Tibet.  The British were able to finally suppress the Chinese-backed rebels in Malaysia with help from the Australian air force.

Video summary of The Battle of Dienbienphu

Cold War Simulation Period 6 (Day 4) 1952-53 and 1954-55

The Swedes complained to the Russians about a plane shot down over the Baltic, and the Soviet spokesman Tomovich McDonaldvich gave a confused answer that essentially admitted to shooting it down.  There was a large uprising up-rising in East Berlin that was violently put-down.  Both Superpowers had a change of leadership.  In the United States, President Truman was replaced by Dwight D. Eisenhower.  In the Soviet Union, there was a power struggle between Beria and Khruschev which ultimately was won by Nikita Khruschev.  Following the death of Beria Soviet spy Vladimir Petrov disappeared into the Australian countryside leading to a wave of anti-communism across the coutnry.    The Chinese detained a British mountain climber and his crew whom they accused of being a CIA spy in the Himalayas.  The US Supreme Court decided that the segregation of public schools was unconstitutional in the landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education.  Meanwhile the International Court of Justice ruled in favor of the United Kingdom regarding its claim against the French in the channel island case.  French General Josiah d’Eddington led a series of successful anti-gurreila actions in Indochina against the Vietminh.   The Americans overthrew Jacob Guzman in Guatemala.  The proliferation of nuclear weapons really increased.  The United Kingdom tested its first hydrogen bomb, and shortly thereafter France and the United States announced that the US had provided the French with this technology.  Later, the Soviets announced that they had given the Chinese atomic bomb capability.  In the Pacific, an American nuclear test—BRAVO—went wrong resulting in the radiation hitting a the crew of the Japanese fishing trawler The Lucky Dragon II. 

Cold War Simulation Period 5 (Day 4) 1952-3 and 1954-55

The Swedes complained to the Russians about a plane shot down over the Baltic, but the Soviets denied any wrong doing.  There was a large uprising up-rising in East Berlin that was violently put-down.  demonstrated .  Both Superpowers had a change of leadership.  In the United States, President Truman was replaced by Dwight D. Eisenhower.  In the Soviet Union, there was a power struggle between Beria and Khruschev which ultimately was won by Nikita Khrushchev.  Following the death of Beria Soviet spy Vladimir Petrov disappeared into the Australian countryside leading to a wave of anti-communism across the country.    The Chinese detained a British mountain climber whom they accused of being a spy.  The US Supreme Court decided that the segregation of public schools was unconstitutional in the landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education.  Meanwhile the International Court of Justice ruled in favor of the United Kingdom regarding its claim against the French in the channel island case.  The American military finished off the H.U.K. Rebellion in the Philippines due in part to ‘Operation Knockout’

Cold War Simulation Period 6 (Day 3) 1952-53

The Soviets made an example of ‘maverick’ communists in Czechoslovakia.  In Iran, communist sympathizer Mossadeugh was elected the leader of Iran.  The United States responded with Operation Ajax, a CIA backed coup that overthrew Mossadeugh to re-install the fiercely anti-communist Shah of Iran who was dependent upon American military aid.  France joined with Belgium, Italy and West Germany to create the European Coal and Steel Community.   The USSR tested its first hydrogen bomb.  The French tested their first atomic bomb and the Soviets announced that they had given some preliminary nuclear secrets to the Chinese.  The American economy was boosted by the discovery of large oil reserves in the Gulf of Mexico.

A video of the one of the first Soviet tests of a H-bomb

Reminders:  get your makeup sheets

Test on Monday April 22

Cold War Simulation Period 5 (Day 3) 1952-53

International pressure finally resulted in the end of the Korean War by the signing of an armistice near the 38th Parallel.  The Soviets made an example of ‘maverick’ communists in Czechoslovakia.  In Iran, communist sympathizer Mossadeugh was elected the leader of Iran.  The United States responded with Operation Ajax, a CIA backed coup that overthrew Mossadeugh to re-install the fiercely anti-communist Shah of Iran who was dependent upon American military aid.  France joined with Belgium, Italy and West Germany to create the European Coal and Steel Community.  The USSR tested its first hydrogen bomb followed closely by the British.  The French attempted a strategy called the ‘yellowing of the army’ in their war against the Vietminh in Indochina.

Video from one of the first Soviet H-Bomb test in 1953

Reminder:  Make up sheets for absences

Test on April 22

Cold War Simulation Period 6 (Day 2)1950-51 and 1952-53

Diplomatic tensions and suspicions amongst the major powers rose with the British trial of Soviet nuclear spy Klaus Fuchs and the resignation from the British intelligence by suspected Soviet spy Kim Philby.  Furthermore, two British spies, Guy Burgess and Donald MacClean attempted to defect to the USSR, but the Soviets were suspicious and had them burned publicly.  In Korea, under the leadership of Douglas MacArthur the American-led UN force was able to gain a significant victory at the Battle of Inchon.  After advancing deep into North Korea, the UN force was suddenly attacked by a large Chinese force from across the Yalu River, which drove the UN forces back to the 38th Parallel.  MacArthur advocated for nuclear strikes against the Chinese, but fortunately was rejected.  In 1952 the major combatants agreed to a truce to end, effectively ending  the Korean War roughly where it started along the 38th Parallel.  The American military completed the supression of the H.U.K. Rebellion in the Philipinnes.  Meanwhile, the British in Kenya were faced with a rebellion that would become known as the Mau Mau Rebellion.

Cold War Simulation Period 5 (Day 2) 1950-51 and 1952-53

Diplomatic tensions and suspicions amongst the major powers rose with the British trial of Soviet nuclear spy Klaus Fuchs and the resignation from the British intelligence by suspected Soviet spy Kim Philby.   In Korea, under the leadership of Douglas MacArthur the American-led UN force was able to gain a significant victory at the Battle of Inchon.  After advancing deep into North Korea, the UN force was suddenly attacked by a large Chinese force from across the Yalu River, which drove the UN forces back to the 38th Parallel.  Douglas (Drew Carruth) MacArthur advocated for nuclear strikes against the Chinese, but fortunately was rejected.  An American coup in Guatemala ousted Guzman, illustrating the American emphasis on containing the spread of communism.

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